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Accipitriformes 该鸟种在中国有分布 本目包含4个科、74个属、266个种、387个亚种

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Chinese name: 鹰形目

Scientific classification

Accipitriformes

The Accipitriformes is an order that has been proposed to include most of the diurnal birds of prey: hawks, eagles, vultures, and many others, about 225 species in all. For a long time, the majority view has been to include them with the falcons in the Falconiformes, but some authorities have recognized a separate Accipitriformes. A recent DNA study has indicated that falcons are not closely related to the Accipitriformes, being instead related to parrots and passerines. Since then the split (but not the placement of the falcons next to the parrots or passerines) has been adopted by the American Ornithologists' Union's South American Classification Committee (SACC), its North American Classification Committee (NACC), and the International Ornithological Congress (IOC).

Order: Accipitriformes
中文目名: 鹰形目
Birds of China: Chinese Bird
鸟类百科采用世界鸟类学家联合会(IOC)最新最权威的鸟类分类方法,Version 3.5
Contents

Description

The DNA-based proposal and the NACC and IOC classifications include the New World vultures in the Accipitriformes, an approach followed in this article. The SACC classifies the New World vultures as a separate order. The placement of the New World vultures has been unclear since the early 1990s.

Contents

  • 1 Characteristics
  • 2 Taxonomy
  • 3 Footnotes
  • 4 References

Characteristics

Accipitriformes are known from the Middle Eocene (the possibly basal genus Masillaraptor from the Messel Pit) and typically have a sharply hooked beak with a cere (soft mass) on the proximodorsal surface, housing the nostrils. Their wings are long and fairly broad, suitable for soaring flight, with the outer 4–6 primaries emarginated.

Accipitriformes have strong legs and feet with raptorial claws and an opposable hind claw. Almost all Accipitriformes are carnivorous, hunting by sight during the day or at twilight. They are exceptionally long-lived, and most have low reproductive rates.

The young have a long, very fast-growing fledgling stage, followed by 3–8 weeks of nest care after first flight, and 1 to 3 years as sexually immature adults. The sexes have conspicuously different sizes and sometimes a female is more than twice as heavy as her mate. This sexual dimorphism is sometimes most extreme in specialized bird-eaters, such as the Accipiter hawks, and borders on non-existent among the vultures. Monogamy is the general rule, although an alternative mate is often selected if one dies.

The Accipitriformes are among the most diverse orders in size, from the small sparrowhawks to the biggest Old World vultures, and the somewhat bigger Andean Condor (possibly the largest flying bird extant) if the Cathartidae are included.

Taxonomy

Order Accipitriformes

  • Accipitridae (buzzards, eagles, harriers, hawks, kites, Old World vultures)
  • Cathartidae (New World vultures including condors)
  • Pandionidae (Osprey)
  • Sagittariidae (Secretary Bird)

Footnotes

  1. Voous 1973.
  2. Cramp 1980, pp. 3, 277.
  3. Ferguson-Lees & Christie 2001, p. 69.
  4. Christidis & Boles 2008, pp. 50–51.
  5. Hackett et al 2008.
  6. ^ ab Remsen, Cadena & Jaramillo Nores.
  7. ^ ab Chesser et al. 2010.
  8. Gill Donsker.
  9. Hackett et al. 2008.
  10. http://taylorandfrancis.metapress.com/index/P18941434J1VMU05.pdf

References

  • Chesser, R. T.; Banks, R. C.; Barker, F. K.; Cicero, C.; Dunn, J. L.; Kratter, A. W.; Lovette, I. J.; Rasmussen, P. C.; Remsen, Jr, J. V.; Rising, J. D.; Stotz, D. F.; Winker, K. (2010). "Fifty-First Supplement to the American Ornithologists' Union Check-list of North American Birds" (pdf). The Auk 127 (3): 726–744. doi:10.1525/auk.2010.127.3.726. Retrieved 2011-05-26.  edit
  • Christidis, Les; Boles, Walter E. (2008). Systematics and Taxonomy of Australian Birds. CSIRO Publishing. ISBN 0-643-06511-3. Retrieved 2010-01-14.  Includes a review of recent literature on the controversy.
  • Cramp, Stanley (1980). Handbook of the Birds of Europe, the Middle East and North Africa: The Birds of the Western Palearctic – Hawks to Bustards. Oxford University Press. pp. 3, 277. ISBN 0-19-857505-X. 
  • Ferguson-Lees, James; Christie, David A. (2001). Raptors of the World. Illustrated by Kim Franklin, David Mead, and Philip Burton. Houghton Mifflin. ISBN 978-0-618-12762-7. Retrieved 2011-05-26. 
  • Gill, Frank; Donsker, D. "IOC World Bird List (version 2.4)". Worldbirdnames.org. Archived from the original on 24 March 2010. Retrieved 2010-03-12. 
  • Hackett, S. J.; Kimball, R. T.; Reddy, S.; Bowie, R. C. K.; Braun, E. L.; Braun, M. J.; Chojnowski, J. L.; Cox, W. A.; Han, K. -L.; Harshman, J.; Huddleston, C. J.; Marks, B. D.; Miglia, K. J.; Moore, W. S.; Sheldon, F. H.; Steadman, D. W.; Witt, C. C.; Yuri, T. (2008). "A Phylogenomic Study of Birds Reveals Their Evolutionary History". Science 320 (5884): 1763–1768. doi:10.1126/science.1157704. PMID 18583609. Retrieved 2011-05-26.  edit
  • Remsen, J. V., Jr.; Cadena, C. D.; Jaramillo, A.; Nores, M.; J. F. Pacheco, M. B. Robbins, T. S. Schulenberg, F. G. Stiles, D. F. Stotz, and K. J. Zimmer. "A classification of the bird species of South America (section "ACCIPITRIDAE (HAWKS) 3" note 1)". Version 11 December 2008. American Ornithologists' Union. Retrieved 2010-05-26. 
  • Voous, K. H. (1973). "List of Recent Holarctic Bird Species Non-Passerines". Ibis 115 (4): 612–638. doi:10.1111/j.1474-919X.1973.tb02004.x.  edit
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(29 orders of modern birds) Superorder: Palaeognathae
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Order: Accipitriformes Family
  • Sagittaridae (Secretarybird)
  • Pandionidae (Osprey)
  • Accipitridae (Buzzards, eagles, harriers, hawks, kites, and Old World vultures)
  • Cathartidae (New World vultures)
  • v
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Old World vultures (subfamily: Aegypiinae) Genus Species Aegypius
  • Cinereous Vulture
Gypaetus
  • Bearded Vulture
Gypohierax
  • Palm-nut Vulture
Gyps
  • Griffon Vulture
  • White-rumped Vulture
  • Rüppell's Vulture
  • Indian Vulture
  • Slender-billed Vulture
  • Himalayan Griffon Vulture
  • White-backed Vulture
  • Cape Vulture
Necrosyrtes
  • Hooded Vulture
Neophron
  • Egyptian Vulture
Sarcogyps
  • Red-headed Vulture
Torgos
  • Lappet-faced Vulture
Trigonoceps
  • White-headed Vulture
  • v
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Subfamily: Buteoninae Genus Species (extinctions: † indicates a species confirmed to be extinct) Geranoaetus
  • Black-chested Buzzard-Eagle
  • Variable Hawk
  • White-tailed Hawk
Buteo
  • Common Buzzard
  • Red-tailed Hawk
  • Long-legged Buzzard
  • Rough-legged Buzzard
  • Ferruginous Hawk
  • Red-shouldered Hawk
  • Broad-winged Hawk
  • Swainson's Hawk
  • Ridgway's Hawk
  • White-rumped Hawk
  • Short-tailed Hawk
  • White-throated Hawk
  • Galápagos Hawk
  • Grey Hawk
  • Zone-tailed Hawk
  • Hawaiian Hawk
  • Rufous-tailed Hawk
  • Mountain Buzzard
  • Madagascar Buzzard
  • Upland Buzzard
  • Red-necked Buzzard
  • Jackal Buzzard
  • Puerto Rican Sharp-shinned Hawk
  • Puerto Rican Broad-winged Hawk
Rupornis
  • Roadside Hawk
Parabuteo
  • Harris's Hawk
  • White-rumped Hawk
Buteogallus
  • Rufous Crab-hawk
  • Common Black Hawk
  • Cuban Black Hawk
  • Great Black Hawk
  • Savanna Hawk
Busarellus
  • Black-collared Hawk
Leucopternis
  • White-browed Hawk
  • White-necked Hawk
  • Black-faced Hawk
  • Plumbeous Hawk
  • Barred Hawk
  • Slate-coloured Hawk
  • Semiplumbeous Hawk
Pseudastur
  • Grey-backed Hawk
  • White Hawk
  • Mantled Hawk
Kaupifalco
  • Lizard Buzzard
Butastur
  • Rufous-winged Buzzard
  • Grasshopper Buzzard
  • White-eyed Buzzard
  • Grey-faced Buzzard
Harpyhaliaetus
  • Crowned Solitary Eagle
  • Montane Solitary Eagle
Morphnus
  • Crested Eagle
Harpia
  • Harpy Eagle
Pithecophaga
  • Philippine Eagle
Harpyopsis
  • New Guinea Harpy Eagle
Spizaetus
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  • Black-and-white Hawk-Eagle
  • Ornate Hawk-Eagle
  • Black-and-chestnut Eagle
Nisaetus
  • Crested Hawk-Eagle
  • Mountain Hawk-Eagle
  • Blyth's Hawk-Eagle
  • Javan Hawk-Eagle
  • Sulawesi Hawk-Eagle
  • Philippine Hawk-Eagle
  • Wallace's Hawk-Eagle
Lophaetus
  • Long-crested Eagle
Stephanoaetus
  • Crowned Eagle
  • Malagasy Crowned Eagle†
Polemaetus
  • Martial Eagle
Hieraaetus
  • African Hawk-Eagle
  • New Guinea Hawk-Eagle
  • Ayres's Hawk-Eagle
Aquila
  • Bonelli's Eagle
  • Booted Eagle
  • Little Eagle
  • Rufous-bellied Eagle
  • Golden Eagle
  • Eastern Imperial Eagle
  • Spanish Imperial Eagle
  • Steppe Eagle
  • Tawny Eagle
  • Greater Spotted Eagle
  • Lesser Spotted Eagle
  • Indian Spotted Eagle
  • Verreaux's Eagle
  • Gurney's Eagle
  • Wahlberg's Eagle
  • Wedge-tailed Eagle
Ictinaetus
  • Black Eagle
Haliaeetus
  • White-bellied Sea Eagle
  • Sanford's Sea Eagle
  • African Fish Eagle
  • Madagascar Fish Eagle
  • Pallas's Fish Eagle
  • White-tailed Eagle
  • Bald Eagle
  • Steller's Sea Eagle
Ichthyophaga
  • Lesser Fish Eagle
  • Grey-headed Fish Eagle
Harpagornis
  • Haast's Eagle†
  • Eagle
  • Buzzard
Categories:
  • Accipitriformes
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      原文链接http://baike.niaolei.org.cn/Accipitriformes

      参考资料

      [1].  Accipitriformes, from Wikipedia:  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Accipitriformes
      [2].  Accipitriformes, from Wikipedia:  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Accipitriformes

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