鸟类百科大全 > 鹤形目 (Gruiformes) > 秧鸡科 (Rallidae)

Fulica 该鸟种在中国有分布 本属包含12个种、8个亚种

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同义词条: Coot

Chinese name: 骨顶属

Scientific classification

Fulica
For other uses, see Coot (disambiguation).

Coots are medium-sized water birds that are members of the rail family Rallidae. They constitute the genus Fulica. Coots have predominantly black plumage, and—unlike many rails—they are usually easy to see, often swimming in open water. They are close relatives of the moorhen.

Genus: Fulica
Family: Rallidae
Order: Gruiformes
中文属名: 骨顶属
中文科名: 秧鸡科
中文目名: 鹤形目
Birds of China: Chinese Bird
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Description

The greatest species variety occurs in South America, and the genus likely originated there. They are common in Europe and North America.

They have prominent frontal shields or other decoration on the forehead, and coloured bills, and many, but not all, have white on the under tail. Like other rails, they have lobed toes. The featherless shield gave rise to the expression "as bald as a coot," which the Oxford English Dictionary cites in use as early as 1430. A group of coots may be referred to as a covert or cover.

They tend to have short, rounded wings and are weak fliers, though northern species nevertheless can cover long distances—the American Coot has reached Britain and Ireland on rare occasions. Coot species that migrate do so at night. Coots can walk and run vigorously on strong legs, and have long toes that are well adapted to soft, uneven surfaces.

These birds are omnivorous, eating mainly plant material, but also small animals and eggs. They are aggressively territorial during the breeding season, but are otherwise often found in sizeable flocks on the shallow vegetated lakes they prefer.

At least some Coots have difficulty feeding a large family of fledglings on the tiny shrimp and insects that they collect. So after about three days they start attacking their own chicks when they beg for food. After a short while, these attacks concentrate on the weaker chicks, who eventually give up begging and die. The coot may eventually raise only two or three out of nine fledglings.

Species in taxonomic order

  • Fulica cristata Gmelin, 1789 - Red-knobbed Coot (Africa, Iberian Peninsula)
  • Fulica atra Linnaeus, 1758 - Eurasian Coot or Common Coot
  • Fulica alai Peale, 1848 - Hawaiian Coot or ʻAlae keʻokeʻo
  • Fulica americana Gmelin, 1789 - American Coot
  • Fulica caribaea Ridgway, 1884 - Caribbean Coot
  • Fulica leucoptera Vieillot, 1817 - White-winged Coot (Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Falkland Islands, Paraguay, Uruguay)
  • Fulica ardesiaca Tschudi, 1843 - Andean Coot (Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru)
  • Fulica armillata Vieillot, 1817 - Red-gartered Coot (Argentina, southern Brazil,Chile, Paraguay, Uruguay)
  • Fulica rufifrons Philppi & Landbeck, 1861 - Red-fronted Coot (Argentina, southern Brazil, Chile, Paraguay, southern Peru, Uruguay)
  • Fulica gigantea Eydoux & Souleyet, 1841 - Giant Coot (Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Peru)
  • Fulica cornuta Bonaparte, 1853 - Horned Coot (Argentina, Bolivia, Chile)
  • Fulica newtoni Milne-Edwards, 1867 - Mascarene Coot (extinct, c.1700)
  • Fulica chathamensis - Chatham Coot (prehistoric)
  • Fulica prisca Hamilton, 1893 - New Zealand Coot (prehistoric)
  • Fulica infelix Brodkorb, 1961 (fossil: Early Pliocene of Juntura, Malheur County, Oregon, USA)
  • Fulica shufeldti (fossil: Pleistocene of North America) - possibly a subspecies of Fulica americana; formerly F. minor

Photo gallery

References

  1. "What do you call a group of ...?". Oxford Dictionaries. Oxford University Press. http://www.oxforddictionaries.com/page/collectivenouns_us. Retrieved 19 April 2011.
  2. "Baltimore Bird Club. Group Name for Birds: A Partial List". http://baltimorebirdclub.org/gnlist.html. Retrieved 2007-06-03.
  3. Life of Birds, David Attenborough. The Problems of Parenthood. 10:20.
  • Rails by Taylor and van Perlo, ISBN 90-74345-20-4

External links

  • Coot videos on the Internet Bird Collection
    Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Fulica or Rallidae


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原文链接http://baike.niaolei.org.cn/Fulica

参考资料

[1].  Fulica, from Wikipedia:  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fulica

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