鸟类百科大全 > 雀形目 (Passeriformes)

Laniidae 该鸟种在中国有分布 本科包含4个属、33个种、84个亚种

编辑词条

同义词条: Shrike

Chinese name: 伯劳科

Scientific classification

Laniidae
For other uses, see Shrike (disambiguation).

Shrikes are passerine birds of the family Laniidae. The family is composed of thirty-one species in three genera. The family name, and that of the largest genus, Lanius, is derived from the Latin word for "butcher", and some shrikes were also known as "butcher birds" because of their feeding habits. Note that the Australasian butcherbirds are not shrikes.

Family: Laniidae
Suborder: Passerii
Order: Passeriformes
中文科名: 伯劳科
中文亚目: 鸣禽亚目
中文目名: 雀形目
Birds of China: Chinese Bird
鸟类百科采用世界鸟类学家联合会(IOC)最新最权威的鸟类分类方法,Version 3.5
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Distribution, migration and habitat

Most shrike species have a Eurasian and African distribution, with just two breeding in North America (the Loggerhead and Great Grey shrikes). There are no members of this family in South America or Australia, although one species reaches New Guinea. The shrikes vary in the extent of their ranges, with some species like the Great Grey Shrike ranging across the northern hemisphere to the Newton's Fiscal which is restricted to the island of São Tomé.

They inhabit open habitats, especially steppe and savannah. A few species of shrike are forest dwellers, seldom occurring in open habitats. Some species breed in northern latitudes during the summer, then migrate to warmer climes for the winter.

Description

Shrikes are medium-sized birds, up to 50 centimetres (20 in) in length, with grey, brown, or black and white plumage. Their beaks are hooked, like that of a bird of prey, reflecting their predatory nature, and their calls are strident.

Behaviour

Laniidae
A bee presumably caught and impaled by a shrike.

Shrikes are known for their habit of catching insects and small vertebrates and impaling their bodies on thorns. This helps them to tear the flesh into smaller, more conveniently-sized fragments, and serves as a cache so that the shrike can return to the uneaten portions at a later time. This same behavior of impaling insects serves as an adaptation to eating the toxic lubber grasshopper (Romalea guttata). The bird waits for 1–2 days for the toxins within the grasshopper to degrade, and then can eat it.

Shrikes are territorial, and these territories are defended from other pairs. In migratory species a breeding territory is defended in the breeding grounds and a smaller feeding territory is established during migration and in the wintering grounds. Where several species of shrike exist together competition for territories can be intense.

Shrikes make regular use of exposed perch sites, where they adopt a conspicuous upright stance. These sites are used in order to watch for prey items and to advertise their presence to rivals.

Breeding

The shrikes are generally monogamous breeders, although polygyny has been recorded in some species. Co-operative breeding, where younger birds help their parents raise the next generation of young, has been recorded in both species in the genera Eurocephalus and Corvinella as well as one species of Lanius. Males attract females to their territory with well stocked caches, which may include inedible but brightly coloured items. During courtship the male will perform a ritualised dance which includes actions that mimic the skewering of prey on thorns and will feed the female. Shrikes make simple, cup-shaped nests from twigs and grasses, in bushes and the lower branches of trees.

Species in taxonomic order

Laniidae
Lizard impaled on thorns by Southern Grey Shrike Lanius meridionalis, Lanzarote

FAMILY: LANIIDAE

  • Genus: Lanius
    • Tiger Shrike, Lanius tigrinus
    • Bull-headed Shrike, Lanius bucephalus
    • Red-backed Shrike Lanius collurio
    • Isabelline Shrike Lanius isabellinus
    • Brown Shrike, Lanius cristatus
    • Burmese Shrike, Lanius collurioides
    • Emin's Shrike, Lanius gubernator
    • Souza's Shrike, Lanius souzae
    • Bay-backed Shrike, Lanius vittatus
    • Long-tailed Shrike Lanius schach
    • Grey-backed Shrike Lanius tephronotus
    • Mountain Shrike or Grey-capped Shrike, Lanius validirostris
    • Lesser Grey Shrike Lanius minor
    • Loggerhead Shrike, Lanius ludovicianus
    • Great Grey Shrike or Northern Shrike Lanius excubitor
    • Southern Grey Shrike Lanius meridionalis
    • Chinese Grey Shrike, Lanius sphenocercus
    • Grey-backed Fiscal, Lanius excubitoroides
    • Long-tailed Fiscal, Lanius cabanisi
    • Taita Fiscal, Lanius dorsalis
    • Somali Fiscal, Lanius somalicus
    • Mackinnon's Shrike, Lanius mackinnoni
    • Common Fiscal, Lanius collaris
      • Uhehe Fiscal, Lanius collaris marwitzi
    • São Tomé Fiscal, Lanius newtoni
    • Woodchat Shrike, Lanius senator
    • Masked Shrike, Lanius nubicus
  • Genus: Corvinella
    • Yellow-billed Shrike, Corvinella corvina
  • Genus: Urolestes
    • Magpie Shrike, Urolestes melanoleucus
  • Genus: Eurocephalus
    • Northern White-crowned Shrike, Eurocephalus rueppelli
    • Southern White-crowned Shrike, Eurocephalus anguitimens

Birds with similar names

Other species, popularly called "shrikes," are in the families:

  • Prionopidae, helmetshrikes.
  • Malaconotidae, puffback shrikes, bush shrikes, tchagras and boubous.
  • Campephagidae, cuckoo-shrikes.

The Prionopidae and Malaconotidae are quite closely related to the Laniidae, and were formerly included in the shrike family. The cuckoo-shrikes are not closely related to the true shrikes.

The Australasian butcherbirds are not shrikes, although they occupy a similar ecological niche.

Use in literature

A central figure in Dan Simmons' Hyperion universe is known as The Shrike. This character is reported to impale human victims on a tree of thorns.

A shrike known as the 'Butcher Bird' kills the newborn babies of fieldmice in The Animals of Farthing Wood.

Stalker Shrike is a central character in the Mortal Engines series by Philip Reeve. The prequel novel Fever Crumb reveals that all members of his unit are similarly named after birds. North American editions change his name to Grike.

In the novel Christie Malry's Own Double-Entry by B. S. Johnson, Christie's girlfriend is referred to as the Shrike because she works in a butcher's shop.

In his 1940 book, Fables for Our Time and Famous Poems Illustrated, author James Thurber included a tale called "The Shrike and the Chipmunks".

References

  1. ^ abc Yosef, Reuven (2008). "Family Laniidae (Shrikes)". In Josep, del Hoyo; Andrew, Elliott; David, Christie. Handbook of the Birds of the World. Volume 13, Penduline-tits to Shrikes. Barcelona: Lynx Edicions. pp. 732–773. ISBN 978-84-96553-45-3.
  2. ^ ab Clancey, P.A. (1991). Forshaw, Joseph. ed. Encyclopaedia of Animals: Birds. London: Merehurst Press. p. 180. ISBN 1-85391-186-0.
  3. "Evolutionary Ecology, Volume 6, Number 6". SpringerLink. http://www.springerlink.com/content/l5583vl684731130/. Retrieved 2012-09-08.
  • Harris, Tony; Franklin, Kim (illustrator) (2000). Shrikes and Bush-shrikes. Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-07036-9.
  • Lefranc, Norbert (1997). Shrikes: A Guide to the Shrikes of the World. Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-07336-4.

External links

  • Shrike videos on the Internet Bird Collection

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原文链接http://baike.niaolei.org.cn/Laniidae

参考资料

[1].  Laniidae, from Wikipedia:  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Laniidae

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