鸟类百科大全 > 雀形目 (Passeriformes)

Muscicapidae 该鸟种在中国有分布 本科包含57个属、313个种、637个亚种

编辑词条

同义词条: Old World flycatcher

Chinese name: 鹟科

Scientific classification

Muscicapidae
For other uses of the term flycatcher, see Flycatcher (disambiguation).

The Old World flycatcher family Muscicapidae is a large family of small passerine birds mostly restricted to the Old World (Europe, Africa and Asia). These are mainly small arboreal insectivores, many of which, as the name implies, take their prey on the wing.

Family: Muscicapidae
Suborder: Passerii
Order: Passeriformes
中文科名: 鹟科
中文亚目: 鸣禽亚目
中文目名: 雀形目
Birds of China: Chinese Bird
鸟类百科采用世界鸟类学家联合会(IOC)最新最权威的鸟类分类方法,Version 3.5
Contents

Characteristics

The appearance of these birds is very varied, but they mostly have weak songs and harsh calls. They are small to medium birds, ranging from 9 to 22 centimetres in length. Many species are a dull brown in colour, but the plumage of some can be much brighter, especially in the males. Most have broad flattened bills suited to catching insects in flight, although the few ground foraging species typically have finer bills.

Old World flycatchers live in almost every environment with a suitable supply of trees, from dense forest to open scrub, and even the montane woodland of the Himalayas. The more northerly species migrate south in winter, ensuring a continuous diet of insects.

Depending on the species, their nests are either well-constructed cups placed in a tree or cliff ledge, or simply lining in a pre-existing tree hole. The hole-nesting species tend to lay larger clutches, with an average of eight eggs, rather than just two to five.

Systematics

This article follows the Handbook of Birds of the World in including the small chat-like ground feeders previously classed with the Turdidae thrushes in this group. Recent biochemical studies found certain traditional thrush genera (Monticola, Myiophonus, Brachypteryx, and Alethe) here in the Muscicapidae. Conversely the Asian saxicoline genera Grandala and Cochoa belong among the thrushes, however this is disputed.

The division of Muscicapidae into two subfamilies may be artificial. Some genera in one subfamily are closer to members of the other and vice-versa. As the exact relationships of the family's members are worked out the internal taxonomic structure of the family may need to be radically revised.

Muscicapidae in taxonomic order

This is a list of muscicapid species, presented in taxonomic order.

Family Muscicapidae

  • Subfamily Muscicapinae - typical flycatchers
    • Genus Empidornis
      • Silverbird, Empidornis semipartitus
    • Genus Bradornis - 4 species.
    • Genus Melaenornis - 7 species.
    • Genus Fraseria - 2 species.
    • Genus Sigelus
      • Fiscal Flycatcher, Sigelus silens
    • Genus Rhinomyias - 11 species.
    • Genus Muscicapa - 24 species.
    • Genus Myioparus - 2 species.
    • Genus Humblotia
      • Grand Comoro Flycatcher, Humblotia flavirostris
    • Genus Ficedula - c.30 species (apparently saxicoline, related to Tarsiger).
    • Genus Cyanoptila -
      • Blue-and-white Flycatcher, Cyanoptila cyanomelana
    • Genus Eumyias - 5 species.
    • Genus Niltava - 6 species.
Muscicapidae
Tickell's Blue Flycatcher Cyornis tickelliae - Male with feed at Ananthagiri Hills, in Rangareddy district of Andhra Pradesh, India.
    • Genus Cyornis - 19 species.
    • Genus Muscicapella - closely related to 2 species of Ficedula and should be placed in that genus
      • Pygmy Flycatcher, Muscicapella hodgsoni
    • Genus Culicicapa - 2 species.
  • Subfamily Saxicolinae - chats and allies (formerly in Turdidae)
    • Genus Tarsiger, bush-robins (5 species)
    • Genus Luscinia (11 species) - paraphyletic
    • Genus Erithacus (3 species) - paraphyletic
    • Genus Irania, White-throated Robin
    • Genus Saxicola, bushchats and stonechats (14 species)
    • Genus Monticola: rock thrushes (13 species, includes Pseudocossyphus)
    • Genus Pogonocichla, White-starred Robin
    • Genus Swynnertonia, Swynnerton's Robin
    • Genus Stiphrornis, forest robins (1-5 species, depending on taxonomy)
    • Genus Xenocopsychus, Angola Cave Chat
Muscicapidae
Indian Robin Saxicoloides fulicata
    • Genus Saxicoloides, Indian Robin
    • Genus Myiomela (4 species)
    • Genus Cinclidium, Blue-fronted Robin
    • Genus Namibornis, Herero Chat
    • Genus Cercomela (9 species)
    • Genus Myrmecocichla (7 species)
    • Genus Thamnolaea, cliff chats (2 species)
    • Genus Pinarornis, Boulder Chat
    • Genus Sheppardia, akalats (9 species)
    • Genus Cossyphicula, White-bellied Robin-chat - may belong in Cossypha
    • Genus Cossypha, robin-chats (14 species)
    • Genus Cichladusa, palm thrushes (3 species)
    • Genus Cercotrichas, scrub robins or bush chats (11 species) - possibly muscicapine
    • Genus Copsychus, magpie-robins or shamas (7 species) - possibly muscicapine
    • Genus Phoenicurus, true redstarts (11 species)- forms a well-supported clade with the following 2 genera placed within
    • Genus Chaimarrornis, White-capped Redstart - Paraphyletic with some Phoenicurus
    • Genus Rhyacornis (2 species) - Paraphyletic with some Phoenicurus
    • Genus Grandala, Grandala
    • Genus Enicurus, forktails (7 species)
    • Genus Campicoloides, Buff-streaked Chat
    • Genus Oenanthe, wheatears (some 20 species)
    • Genus Trichixos, Rufous-tailed Shama
  • Aberrant redstart, subfamily assignment not fully resolved
    • Genus Hodgsonius, White-bellied Redstart

References

  1. ^ ab Del Hoyo, J.; Elliot, A. & Christie D. (editors). (2006). Handbook of the Birds of the World. Volume 11: Old World Flycatchers to Old World Warblers. Lynx Edicions. ISBN 84-96553-06-X.
  2. "Old World Flycatchers Muscicapidae". artfullbirds.com. http://www.artfullbirds.com/Old%20World%20Flycatchers.html. Retrieved June 3, 2010.
  3. ^ abc Perrins, C. (1991). Forshaw, Joseph. ed. Encyclopaedia of Animals: Birds. London: Merehurst Press. pp. 194–195. ISBN 1-85391-186-0.
  • Jønsson, K.A., and J. Fjeldsa. 2006. A phylogenetic supertree of oscine passerine birds (Aves:Passeri). Zoologica Scripta 35: 149-186.
  • Lei, X., Lian, Z.-M., Lei F.-M., Yin Z.-H., Zhao H.-F. 2007. Phylogeny of some Muscicapinae birds based on cyt b mitochondrial gene sequences. Acta Zoologica Sinica, 53(1):95 - 105. PDF fulltext
  • Outlaw, D.C., Voelker, G. 2006. Systematics of Ficedula flycatchers (Muscicapidae): A molecular reassessment of a taxonomic enigma. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution Vol. 41:1, pp 118–126. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2006.05.004 PDF fulltext
  • Pan, Q.-W., Lei F.-M., Yang S.-J., Yin Z.-H., Huang Y., Tai F.-D., Kristin, A. 2006. Phylogenetic analysis of some Turdinae birds based on mitochondrial cytochrome b gene sequences. Acta Zoologica Sinica, 52(1):87 - 98. PDF fulltext

External links

  • Old World flycatcher videos on the Internet Bird Collection
  •  Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Flycatcher". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.

→如果您认为本词条还有待完善,请 编辑词条

上一篇Masked Gnatcatcher 下一篇Empidornis

勘误指正:词条内容仅供参考,若有任何谬误、版权缺失、中医药用等内容,请您留言或编辑。
版权声明:转载引用遵守知识共享 署名-相同方式共享 3.0协议,必须注明原始链接。
原文链接http://baike.niaolei.org.cn/Muscicapidae

参考资料

[1].  Muscicapidae, from Wikipedia:  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Muscicapidae

附件列表


Related birds

词条信息

鸟博士
鸟博士
超级管理员 star level 1 star level 1 star level 1
词条创建者 发短消息   10391金币