鸟类百科大全 > Aves   

Piciformes 该鸟种在中国有分布 本目包含9个科、67个属、441个种、970个亚种

编辑词条

Chinese name: 鴷形目

Scientific classification

Piciformes

Nine families of largely arboreal birds make up the order Piciformes, the best-known of them being the Picidae, which includes the woodpeckers and close relatives. The Piciformes contain about 67 living genera with a little over 400 species, of which the Picidae (woodpeckers and relatives) make up about half.

Order: Piciformes
中文目名: 鴷形目
Birds of China: Chinese Bird
鸟类百科采用世界鸟类学家联合会(IOC)最新最权威的鸟类分类方法,Version 3.5
Contents

Description

In general, the Piciformes are insectivorous, although the barbets and toucans mostly eat fruit and the honeyguides are unique among birds in being able to digest beeswax (although insects make up the bulk of their diet). Nearly all Piciformes have parrot-like zygodactyl feet—two toes forward and two back, an arrangement that has obvious advantages for birds that spend much of their time on tree trunks. An exception are a few species of three-toed woodpeckers. The jacamars aside, Piciformes do not have down feathers at any age, only true feathers. They range in size from the Rufous Piculet at 8 centimetres in length, and weighing 7 grams, to the Toco Toucan, at 63 centimetres long, and weighing 680 grams. All nest in cavities and have altricial young.

Systematics and evolution

Piciformes
Primozygodactylus, a zygodactylid bird

The Galbulidae and Bucconidae are often separated into a distinct Galbuliformes order. Analysis of nuclear genes confirms that they form a lineage of their own, but suggests that they are better treated as a suborder. The other families form another monophyletic group of suborder rank, but the barbets were determined to be paraphyletic with regard to the toucans and hence, the formerly all-encompassing Capitonidae have been split up. The woodpeckers and honeyguides are each other's closest relatives.

Reconstruction of the evolutionary history of the Piciformes has been hampered by poor understanding of the evolution of the zygodactyl foot. A number of prehistoric families and genera, from the Early Eocene Neanis and Hassiavis, the Zygodactylidae/Primoscenidae, Gracilitarsidae, Sylphornithidae, and "Homalopus", to the Miocene "Picus" gaudryi and the Pliocene Bathoceleus are sometimes tentatively assigned to this order. There are some extinct ancestral Piciformes known from fossils which have been difficult to place but at least in part probably belong to the Pici. The modern families are known to exist since the mid-late Oligocene to early Miocene; consequently, the older forms appear to be more basal. A large part of Piciform evolution seems to have occurred in Europe where only Picidae occur today; perhaps even some now exclusively Neotropical families have their origin in the Old World.

Families

Order: PICIFORMES

  • Unassigned (all fossil)
    • Piciformes gen. et sp. indet. IRScNB Av 65 (Early Oligocene of Boutersem, Belgium)
    • Piciformes gen. et sp. indet. SMF Av 429 (Late Oligocene of Herrlingen, Germany)
  • Suborder Galbulae
    • Family Galbulidae - jacamars (18 species)
    • Family Bucconidae - puffbirds, nunbirds and nunlets (some 30 species)
  • Suborder Pici
    • Unresolved and basal taxa (all fossil)
      • Genus Rupelramphastoides (Early Oligocene of Frauenweiler, Germany)
      • Genus Capitonides (Early - Middle Miocene of Europe)
      • Pici gen. et sp. indet. (Middle Miocene of Grive-Saint-Alban, France)
    • Family Lybiidae - African barbets (about 40 species, recently split from Capitonidae)
    • Family Megalaimidae - Asian barbets (about 25 species, recently split from Capitonidae)
    • Family Ramphastidae - toucans (about 40 species)
    • Family Semnornithidae - toucan-barbets (2 species, recently split from Capitonidae)
    • Family Capitonidae - American barbets (about 15 species)
    • Family Miopiconidae (fossil)
    • Family Picavidae (fossil)
    • Family Picidae - woodpeckers, piculets and wrynecks (over 200 species)
    • Family Indicatoridae - honeyguides (17 species)

Footnotes

  1. Short, Lester L. (1991). Forshaw, Joseph. ed. Encyclopaedia of Animals: Birds. London: Merehurst Press. pp. 152–157. ISBN 1-85391-186-0.
  2. Lanyon, Scott M.; Hall, John G (April 1994). "Reexamination of Barbet Monophyly Using Mitochondrial-DNA Sequence Data". The Auk 111 (2): 389–397. http://elibrary.unm.edu/sora/Auk/v111n02/p0389-p0397.pdf.
  3. Johansson & Ericson (2003)
  4. Described in 1870, its name is preoccupied by a subgenus of Cryptocephalus leaf beetles described in 1835.
  5. Cracraft & Morony (1969)
  6. ramphastid?
  7. ramphastid? "capitonid" (Lybiidae, Megalaimidae)? own family Capitonididae?
  8. "capitonid" (Lybiidae, Megalaimidae)?
  9. "CMC 152", a distal carpometacarpus; more similar to extant barbets than to Capitonides: Ballmann (1969)

References

  • Ballmann, Peter (1969): Les Oiseaux miocènes de la Grive-Saint-Alban (Isère) [The Miocene birds of Grive-Saint-Alban (Isère)]. Geobios 2: 157-204. [French with English abstract] doi:10.1016/S0016-6995(69)80005-7 (HTML abstract)
  • Cracraft, Joel & Morony, John J. Jr. (1969): A new Pliocene woodpecker, with comments on the fossil Picidae. American Museum Novitates 2400: 1-8. PDF fulltext
  • Gorman, Gerard (2004): Woodpeckers of Europe: A Study of the European Picidae. Bruce Coleman, UK. ISBN 1-872842-05-4.
  • Johansson, Ulf S. & Ericson, Per G.P. (2003): Molecular support for a sister group relationship between Pici and Galbulae (Piciformes sensu Wetmore 1960). J. Avian Biol. 34(2): 185–197. doi:10.1034/j.1600-048X.2003.03103.x PDF fulltext

External links

  • Tree of Life Piciformes
  • v
  • t
  • e
Order: Piciformes Suborder Family Galbulae
  • Galbulidae (jacamars)
  • Bucconidae (puffbirds, nunbirds and nunlets)
Pici
  • Lybiidae (African barbets)
  • Megalaimidae (Asian barbets)
  • Ramphastidae (toucans)
  • Semnornithidae (toucan-barbets)
  • Capitonidae (American barbets)
  • Picidae (woodpeckers, piculets and wrynecks)
  • Indicatoridae (honeyguides)
  • v
  • t
  • e
Birds (class: Aves) Anatomy
  • Bird anatomy
  • Flight
  • Eggs
  • Feathers
  • Plumage
  • Beak
  • Vision
  • Dactyly
  • Preen gland
Behaviour
  • Singing
  • Intelligence
  • Migration
  • Incubation
  • Brood parasites
  • Nesting
  • Hybrids
Evolution
  • Evolution of birds
  • Origin of birds
  • Darwin's finches
  • Seabirds

Subclass: Neornithes
(29 orders of modern birds) Superorder: Palaeognathae
  • Struthioniformes (ratites)
  • Tinamiformes (tinamous)
Superorder: Neognathae
  • Anseriformes (waterfowl)
  • Galliformes (gamebirds)
  • Opisthocomiformes (Hoatzin)
  • Pteroclidiformes (sandgrouses)
  • Columbiformes (doves and pigeons)
  • Phaethontiformes (tropicbirds)
  • Eurypygiformes (Kagu and Sunbittern)
  • Mesitornithiformes (mesites)
  • Podicipediformes (grebes)
  • Phoenicopteriformes (flamingos)
  • Caprimulgiformes (nightjars and relatives)
  • Apodiformes (swifts and hummingbirds)
  • Cuculiformes (cuckoos and relatives)
  • Gruiformes (cranes and relatives)
  • Gaviiformes (loons or divers)
  • Procellariiformes (albatrosses and petrels)
  • Ciconiiformes (storks)
  • Pelecaniformes (pelicans and relatives)
  • Suliformes (cormorants and relatives)
  • Sphenisciformes (penguins)
  • Charadriiformes (gulls and relatives)
  • Accipitriformes (eagles and hawks)
  • Trogoniformes (trogons and quetzals)
  • Coliiformes (mousebirds)
  • Strigiformes (owls)
  • Leptosomatiformes (Cuckoo Roller)
  • Coraciiformes (kingfishers and relatives)
  • Piciformes (woodpeckers and relatives)
  • Cariamiformes (seriemas and relatives)
  • Falconiformes (falcons and relatives)
  • Psittaciformes (parrots)
  • Passeriformes (perching birds)
Fossil birds
  • Archaeopteryx
  • Enantiornithes
  • Hesperornithes
Human–bird interaction
  • Ringing
  • Ornithology
  • Bird collections
  • Birdwatching
  • Bird feeding
  • Conservation
  • Aviculture
  • Waterfowl hunting
  • Cockfighting
  • Pigeon racing
  • Falconry
  • Pheasantry
  • Egg Collecting
Lists
  • Families and orders
  • Genera
  • Lists by region
  • Extinct birds
  • Late Quaternary prehistoric birds
  • Sibley-Ahlquist taxonomy
  • Category
  • Portal
  • Outline

→如果您认为本词条还有待完善,请 编辑词条

上一篇Southern Ground Hornbill 下一篇Galbulidae

勘误指正:词条内容仅供参考,若有任何谬误、版权缺失、中医药用等内容,请您留言或编辑。
版权声明:转载引用遵守知识共享 署名-相同方式共享 3.0协议,必须注明原始链接。
原文链接http://baike.niaolei.org.cn/Piciformes

参考资料

[1].  Piciformes, from Wikipedia:  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Piciformes

附件列表


Related birds

词条信息

鸟博士
鸟博士
超级管理员 star level 1 star level 1 star level 1
词条创建者 发短消息   10489金币