鸟类百科大全 > 鸻形目 (Charadriiformes)

Stercorariidae 该鸟种在中国有分布 本科包含1个属、7个种、5个亚种

编辑词条

同义词条: Skua

Chinese name: 贼鸥科

Scientific classification

Stercorariidae
For other uses, see Skua (disambiguation).

The skuas ( /ˈskjuːə/) are a group of seabirds with about seven species forming the family Stercorariidae and the genus Stercorarius. The three smaller skuas are called jaegers in the Americas.

Family: Stercorariidae
Suborder: Lari
Order: Charadriiformes
中文科名: 贼鸥科
中文亚目: 鸥亚目
中文目名: 鸻形目
Birds of China: Chinese Bird
鸟类百科采用世界鸟类学家联合会(IOC)最新最权威的鸟类分类方法,Version 3.5
Contents

Description

The English word "skua" comes from the Faroese name skúgvur [ˈskɪkvʊər] for the Great Skua, with the island of Skúvoy renowned for its colony of that bird. The general Faroese term for skuas is kjógvi [ˈtʃɛkvə]. The word "jaeger" is derived from the German word Jäger, meaning "hunter".

Skuas nest on the ground in temperate and Arctic regions, and are long-distance migrants. They have even been sighted at the South Pole.

Biology and habits

Outside the breeding season, skuas take fish, offal, and carrion. Many are partial kleptoparasites, comprising up to 95% of the feeding methods of wintering birds, by chasing gulls, terns and other seabirds to steal their catches, regardless of the size of the species attacked (up to 3 times heavier than the attacking skua). The larger species, such as the Great Skua, also regularly kill and eat adult birds, such as puffins and gulls, and have been recorded as killing birds as large as a Grey Heron. On the breeding grounds, the three, more slender Northern breeding species commonly eat lemmings. Those species that breed in the Southern Oceans, largely feed on fish that can be caught near their colonies. The eggs and young of other birds are an important food source for most skua species during the nesting season. In the Southern oceans and Antarctica region, some skua species (especially the South Polar Skua) will readily scavenge the carcasses at breeding colonies of penguins and pinnipeds, sometimes taking live penguin chicks. In these areas, skuas seem to defer to the considerably larger giant petrels.

Stercorariidae
Two skuas and a giant petrel fighting over a dead Antarctic Fur Seal

They are medium to large birds, typically with grey or brown plumage, often with white markings on the wings. The skuas range in size from the Long-tailed Skua, Stercorarius longicauda, at 310 grams (11 oz), to the Brown Skua, Stercorarius antarcticus, at 1.63 kg (3.6 lb). On average, a skua is about 56 cm (22 in) long, and 121 cm (48 in) across the wings. They have longish bills with a hooked tip, and webbed feet with sharp claws. They look like large dark gulls, but have a fleshy cere above the upper mandible. The skuas are strong, acrobatic fliers. They are generally aggressive in disposition. Potential predators who go near their nest will be quickly dived at by the parent bird, which usually targets the head of the intruder - a practice known as 'dive bombing'.

Taxonomy

Skuas are related to gulls, waders, auks, and skimmers. In the three smaller species, all nesting exclusively in the Holarctic, breeding adults have the two central tail feathers obviously elongated, and at least some adults have white on the underparts and pale yellow on the neck. These characteristics are not shared by the larger species, all native to the Southern Hemisphere except for the Great Skua. Therefore the skuas are often split into two genera, with only the smaller species retained in Stercorarius, and the large species placed in Catharacta. However, based on genetics, behavior, and feather lice, the overall relationship among the species is best expressed by placing all in a single genus. The Pomarine and Great Skuas' mitochondrial DNA (inherited from the mother) is in fact more closely related to each other than it is to either Arctic or Long-tailed Skuas, or to the Southern Hemisphere species. Thus, hybridization must have played a considerable role in the evolution of the diversity of Northern Hemisphere skuas.

Species

Stercorariidae
Skua in Antarctica
Stercorariidae
A skua nestling, with egg tooth present
  • Long-tailed Skua or Long-tailed Jaeger, Stercorarius longicaudus
  • Parasitic Skua or Arctic Jaeger, Stercorarius parasiticus
  • Pomarine Skua or Pomarine Jaeger, Stercorarius pomarinus
  • Chilean Skua, Stercorarius chilensis
  • South Polar Skua, Stercorarius maccormicki
  • Brown Skua, Stercorarius antarcticus
    • Falkland Skua, Stercorarius (antarcticus) antarcticus
    • Tristan Skua, Stercorarius (antarcticus) hamiltoni
    • Subantarctic Skua, Stercorarius (antarcticus) lonnbergi
  • Great Skua Stercorarius skua

References

  1. Mark Sabbatini, "Non-human life form seen at Pole", The Antarctic Sun, 5 January 2003.
  2. Scottish Ornithologists' Club
  3. ^ ab Harrison, Colin J.O. (1991). Forshaw, Joseph. ed. Encyclopaedia of Animals: Birds. London: Merehurst Press. pp. 109. ISBN 1-85391-186-0.
  4. http://carnivoraforum.com/index.cgi?board=interspecific&action=print&thread=390
  5. "Scottish Wildlife Trust builds £50,000 loo on Handa". BBC News. 12 March 2012. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-scotland-highlands-islands-17338746.
  6. AOU (2000). Forty-second supplement to the American Ornithologists' Union Check-list of North American Birds. The Auk 117(3):847–858.
  7. Cohen, Baker, Belchschmidt, Dittmann, Furness, Gerwin, Helbig , de Korte, Marshall, Palma, Peter, Ramli, Siebold, Willcox, Wilson and Zink (1997). Enigmatic phylogeny of skuas. Proc. Biol. Sci. 264(1379): 181–190.
  • Harrison, Peter Seabirds: An Identification Guide ISBN 0-7470-1410-8

External links

  • Skua videos on the Internet Bird Collection

→如果您认为本词条还有待完善,请 编辑词条

上一篇Black-faced Sheathbill

勘误指正:词条内容仅供参考,若有任何谬误、版权缺失、中医药用等内容,请您留言或编辑。
版权声明:转载引用遵守知识共享 署名-相同方式共享 3.0协议,必须注明原始链接。
原文链接http://baike.niaolei.org.cn/Stercorariidae

参考资料

[1].  Stercorariidae, from Wikipedia:  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stercorariidae

附件列表


Related birds

词条信息

鸟博士
鸟博士
超级管理员 star level 1 star level 1 star level 1
词条创建者 发短消息   10483金币