鸟类百科大全 > 雀形目 (Passeriformes) > 椋鸟科 (Sturnidae)

Sturnus 该鸟种在中国有分布 本属包含2个种、13个亚种

编辑词条

Chinese name: 椋鸟属

Scientific classification

Sturnus

Sturnus is a genus of starlings. As discussed below, the taxonomy of this group is complex, and other authorities differ considerably in which species they place in this genus, and in the species boundaries within Sturnus.

Genus: Sturnus
Family: Sturnidae
Suborder: Passerii
Order: Passeriformes
中文属名: 椋鸟属
中文科名: 椋鸟科
中文亚目: 鸣禽亚目
中文目名: 雀形目
Birds of China: Chinese Bird
鸟类百科采用世界鸟类学家联合会(IOC)最新最权威的鸟类分类方法,Version 3.5
Contents

Description

This genus has representatives across most of Eurasia and one species, the European Starling, has been introduced to South Africa, North America, Australia and New Zealand.

The Sturnus starlings are terrestrial species; they walk rather than hop, and have modifications to the skull and its muscles for open-bill probing. The latter adaptation has facilitated the spread of this genus from humid tropical southern Asia to cooler regions of Europe and Asia.

The more northerly breeding species are completely or partially migratory, wintering in warmer regions.

Sturnus starlings nest in holes in trees or buildings. They are omnivorous and mostly feed on the ground; they specialise in taking invertebrates from just below the surface. This is facilitated by the head adaptations mentioned above, which enable the birds to probe with the bill open, closing it to secure prey items.

The plumages within this group are variable, but all the species have the starling's familiar triangular wing shape.

Systematics

The European (the type species) and Spotless Starlings are particularly closely related, and interbreed to some extent where their ranges overlap in southwestern France and northeastern Spain. The non-migratory Spotless Starling may be descended from a population of ancestral S. vulgaris that survived in an Iberian refugium during an ice age retreat.

The other species have been placed in this, closely related, or their own genera in the past. As delimited here, the genus Sturnus is an evolutionary grade and not a monophyletic group (Zuccon et al. 2006). It appears as if Acridotheres, Leucopsar, Sturnia, and possibly others would have to be included here to make the present genus a truly evolutionary group (Jønsson & Fjeldså 2006). However, this would create an even more diverse and less informative assemblage, so it is probably more advisable to split the genus into several, reinstating taxa such as Pastor and Temenuchus and redelimiting some of the disputed genera above while merging others.

This has to wait for a more thorough study of all species' relationships; in the meantime, the old taxonomic sequence is preserved and suspected affiliations of the currently included species are remarked upon:

  • White-faced Starling, Sturnus albofrontatus (sometimes named S. senex) - sometimes placed in Sturnia, but incertae sedis
  • Black-collared Starling, Sturnus nigricollis - sometimes separated in Gracupica which may be correct; probably close to Creatophora
  • Pied Myna, Sturnus contra - - sometimes separated in Gracupica which may be correct; probably close to Creatophora
  • Vinous-breasted Starling, Sturnus burmannicus - sometimes placed in Acridotheres which appears to be correct
  • Black-winged Starling, Sturnus melanopterus - sometimes placed in Acridotheres which appears to be correct
  • Rosy Starling, Sturnus roseus - sometimes placed in Pastor which appears to be correct
  • Red-billed Starling, Sturnus sericeus - close to White-cheeked Starling and thus probably belongs into Acridotheres or distinct genus
  • White-cheeked Starling, Sturnus cineraceus - appears to be related to Acridotheres, but maybe a distinct genus located between Acridotheres and Sturnia
  • European Starling, Sturnus vulgaris - retained in this genus
  • Spotless Starling, Sturnus unicolor - retained in this genus

References

Footnotes

  1. Zuccon, Dario; Pasquet, Eric; Ericson, Perg P. (September 2008). "Phylogenetic relationships among Palearctic–Oriental starlings and mynas (genera Sturnus and Acridotheres: Sturnidae)". Zoologica Scripta 37 (5): 469–481. doi:10.1111/j.1463-6409.2008.00339.x. http://www.nrm.se/download/18.251938811dab4a5dcc8000180/Zuccon+et+al+Sturnus+ZSC+2008.pdf.
  2. ^ abcdefghi See Jønsson & Fjeldså (2006).
  3. ^ abcde See Zuccon et al. (2006).

Sources

  • Feare, Chris & Craig, Adrian (1999): Starlings and Mynas. Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-7136-3961-X
  • Grimmett, Richard; Inskipp, Carol, Inskipp, Tim & Byers, Clive (1999): Birds of India, Pakistan, Nepal, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Sri Lanka, and the Maldives. Princeton University Press, Princeton, N.J.. ISBN 0-691-04910-6
  • Jønsson, Knud A. & Fjeldså, Jon (2006): A phylogenetic supertree of oscine passerine birds (Aves: Passeri). Zool. Scripta 35(2): 149–186. doi:10.1111/j.1463-6409.2006.00221.x (HTML abstract)
  • Svensson, Lars; Zetterström, Dan; Mullarney, Killian & Grant, P. J. (1999): Collins bird guide. Harper & Collins, London. ISBN 0-00-219728-6
  • Zuccon, Dario; Cibois, Alice; Pasquet, Eric & Ericson, Per G.P. (2006): Nuclear and mitochondrial sequence data reveal the major lineages of starlings, mynas and related taxa. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 41(2): 333-344. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2006.05.007 (HTML abstract)

→如果您认为本词条还有待完善,请 编辑词条

上一篇Rosy Starling 下一篇Red-billed Starling

勘误指正:词条内容仅供参考,若有任何谬误、版权缺失、中医药用等内容,请您留言或编辑。
版权声明:转载引用遵守知识共享 署名-相同方式共享 3.0协议,必须注明原始链接。
原文链接http://baike.niaolei.org.cn/Sturnus

参考资料

[1].  Sturnus, from Wikipedia:  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sturnus

附件列表


Related birds

Bird Gallary

词条信息

鸟博士
鸟博士
超级管理员 star level 1 star level 1 star level 1
词条创建者 发短消息   10489金币